Some people even refer to him as a deity. There have even been attempts to make Confucianism into a religion. However, present day people regard Confucius as an ethical teacher rather than a man of religious faith, and they refuse to believe that Confucianism is a religion. However, in order to determine whether Confucianism is a religion, the most important Confucian text, The Analects, must be analyzed to. Both St. Both doctrines provide discussion on the ethical values of society back in the ancient time they were written and lead us to discover similarities between the two beliefs.
Although we find these connections, there are significant differences between St. According to his Analects, the ideal person, or junzi, " is one who through disciplined practice sets in motion a sympathetic vibration for others to follow," Jones, The ideal person is not a political leader but a moral mentor. The concept of the junzi corresponds well with Confucius's concept of right governance: "When right principles prevail in the kingdom, government will not be in the hands of the great officers," Analects, 4.
The qualities of the junzi include being completely. Confucius was a Chinese philosopher who lived and taught in a period when the unified Chou kingdom had split into a number of feudal states. The subjects that will be talked about is: The philosopher himself, the Analects and what they represent, and lastly the teachings and what a single interpretation of them could be, and what further questions could be asked for further interpretation.
Confucianism is the study of the social philosophy through the secular teachings that Confucius taught, what. It is something that is given Cahn Confucius: Given by who? Plato: Given by what you call the heavens,…… [Read More]. The meaning of citizenship has been addressed in different ways by various schools of thought, beginning with the Greeks. Citizenship means the state of belonging to a collective, a state, and an important element that emerges from Greek, Roman, and early Christian thinkers is that citizenship both confers rights and requires the fulfillment of responsibilities for an individual to be considered a good citizen.
Definitions of being a good citizen include clarifying the relationship between the individual and his or her society, as can be seen in the political writings of Plato and the philosophical and ethical writings of Confucius. Plato identifies the good man with the good citizen, and what makes the individual good also makes the individual a good citizen. Confucius would agree…… [Read More]. Justice Has Different Meanings in. This clearly indicates that Thrasymachus was not won and while Socrates ended the argument on a good note but it was more his own approval of his views than Thrasymachus'.
We can thus say with confidence that Thrasymachus was also a wise man of considerable sagacity. He knew that Socrates could move people with the power of his speech and was thus completely prepared to meet his barrage of arguments.
Analects of Confucius Philosophy Essay - Words
I do not think that Socrates won himself a friend or even an admirer in Thrasymachus because the latter looked significantly bored and uninterested. He even said that he was agreeing where he agreed only to make Socrates happy. It seems that Socrates was more interested in pleasing the others on the scene and winning his approval than he was in Thrasymachus because he had come to know very early in the discussion that Thrasymachus could not…… [Read More].
Mencius' Theory Different Than That.
Confucius had mentioned filial concern, but Mencius places emphasis on this filial concern prioritizing between special concern for and obligations towards family that is closest to oneself gradating down to others, and stated proper attitude to family as essential to order in society au, For instance, he provides the example of a beggar who, starving to death, would, and should, rather die than accept food given to him in a contemptuous manner. One has to cultivate this trait so that one lives one's life according to a certain modicum of self-respect and ethical standards Shun, Mencius retained 'li's connotation to proper conduct but he extended it to the formulation that tendency to accord to 'li' and its nuances or rules …… [Read More].
Bantu This Term Can Be. Known as the Median kingdom, centered in what is today northern Iran, this powerful alliance of Mesopotamian kingdoms and nations emerged in the late 8th century B. In B. Cyrus the Great invaded the Babylonian Empire and annexed all of Chaldea, taking its king Nabonidus captive and then naming himself as the king of Babylon, Akkad and Sumer. Soon after, Cyrus the Great gained control of the vast Arabian Peninsula and attempted to invade the Egyptian Kingdom.
Not surprisingly, all of this expansion of the Persian Empire was not taken very lightly by Cyrus' numerous…… [Read More]. Rosa's Ethics Ever Since December. The most convincing interpretation might be that, as she contended, she did not foresee the consequences. Parks stated that "it was not a time for me to be planning to get arrested. So, if she was not considering the consequences, then she was not thinking rationally; if she was not thinking rationally, according to Aristotle, then she was not behaving virtuously.
Since we should probably use Parks' own words as the best evidence, we should conclude that Aristotle would not consider her a particularly virtuous individual. Confucius, alternatively, maintained that all human morality was held together by a single concept: ren, or natural humanistic love.
Simply put, ren is a love and respect for all things human. To Confucius, a person can only achieve ren if they undergo an attainment of knowledge to the point where they reach a workable grasp of the place for each form of…… [Read More].
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Chinese Civilization. This perhaps his most outstanding attribute -- a continuous striving for a perpetually unattainable perfection. Although this construct refers to superiority as measured against a man's peers, it is more focused on becoming superior to one's own self both in the present and in measure of the past. Striving for perfection, or a "perfect virtue" Analects, bk. He evidently understood that "They who know virtue, are few" Analects, bk. Confucius valued the perpetually relative.
That is, with superiority cast as a constantly moving target, a human being must face the condition that facilitates being superior within one's own sphere -- being superior to that…… [Read More]. Christianity Confucianism and Buddhism Religious. Confucius, likewise, although scholars say that Confucianism is not a theistic religion, stresses the will or mandate of heaven having an influence upon the lives of all, but focuses on the obligations of individuals in a society, not upon isolated religious acts of goodness. Buddhism, another cross-national religion also focuses on acts, such as the importance of meditation, rather than individual spiritual perfection, but focuses on such acts in a trans-national focus and stresses 'right understanding' as opposed to social relationships as in Confucianism.
Confucianism does not stress the distinction between earth and the dead. It creates a network of continuity between ancestors of the past and one's present shows of respect, through good conduct, towards ones ancestors.
Unlike Christianity, which stresses the better place of the Father in heaven, Buddhists do not believe in any type of God, the need for a savior, prayer, or eternal life after death. Traditional Chinese Thoughts Human Nature. In contrast Mozi argued that people should always care for others equally. Linking the thoughts of different philosophers The ancient Chinese sacrificial practice was very common whereby the historical dynasties had carried out human sacrifices quite extensively.
However there was the disappearance of this ritual during the periods of spring and autumn as well as the warring periods. Though it was practiced privately this ritual of sacrificing humans was replaced at the state level by clay puppets. The reason why this ritual was discontinued was not known. All these philosophers ignored the blood letting ritual but instead put emphasis on ritual morality to form the foundation of ritual state. Xunzi came up with a funeral ritual which was an ancestral right which required blood sacrifice in the ancient time. This according to him was to form the basis for good citizenship and morality when it came to rituals Plutschow, Gentleman and Benevolence Confucian Benevolence.
He was also severing his bond to his subjects like Antigone, whose rights to act in a morally pious fashion were part of their rights as his citizens. A good king thus must act with benevolence, and according to the rules that are put upon him in his position, just like a subject must act kindly towards the king. Creon's actions also put his own son in a terrible position. His son forced to choose between his obligations to his father and his bride. In violating his proper duties as a father as well as a king, Creon is also violating the dictates of being a gentleman in the spirit of benevolence.
Demonstrating benevolence is honoring one's obligations and also allowing others to perform their obligations to you and to others. Antigone attempts to do this by encouraging her sister to join her in burying her brother and also defying…… [Read More]. Political Science Comparison of Leadership.
Ng, , p. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony. Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power.
The region was riven by war and…… [Read More]. Olmec Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between B. And B. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber.
Others became priests or teachers. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…… [Read More]. Heaven This is a theory that originated in China. This is a political theory in which the rulers received the right to rule over their subjects from a heavenly source. The Zhou Dynasty ruled over the people of China during this time. The Mandate of Heaven determines if an emperor of China is virtuous to rule. It determines if an emperor has received divine recognition from the gods to rule. This mandate outlines that if an emperor had no virtue to rule then he had no powers and another person takes the role of the emperor Marshall This mandate concerns itself with the legitimacy of rulers in China.
The conduct of the emperor profoundly influenced the support of the ruler by the gods. If another individual overthrew an emperor, then the people said that the overthrown…… [Read More]. Throned in Splendor Deathless O. The poems Catullus wrote to the woman Lesbia are among his best known. How would you characterize their affair? Catallus describes a conflicted and stormy affair with the women of Lesbia. Sexual tension is evident in his poems, which have a strong erotic content. Therefore, his affairs were passionate and physical. If the gender roles were reversed and the woman were the narrator, do you think this series of poems would read differently?
The poems would read differently not because their content would have changed but because they would subvert social norms. As a male, Catallus is allowed, almost expected to write such explicit details about his physical affairs including references to love and hatred. Females would have been more subtle because of the widespread social persecution they might suffer if they admitted to promiscuity or tumultuous romantic interludes especially with married people.
Catullus ends up calling his lady…… [Read More]. Crito Is a Short Dialogue. If somebody has been accused of something that is punishable whether civilly or criminally, he will do everything just to be able to surpass the trial, even resorting to escape. Concerning the value of the law, Socrates has shown his strong standpoint about respect to its decisions.
For him, if one has the ability to choose whether to obey a law, then it is a way of destroying the power of the law. He considered disobeying the law as unjust because the people and the law should go together. The law will not exist without the people and vice versa. If he will escape, then, he will disobey the law.
He believed that this will bring him in a wobbly position in his life after death. Again, if we are going to read the New Testament, the duties towards state authorities is mentioned in Romans , Everyone must obey state…… [Read More]. Religious Reflections Please Respond Identify 3 1. Religious Reflections. Religious reflections The phrase 'Judeo-Christian ethic' is often used as a broad-based term to describe the philosophy of most residents of the United States. But this is rapidly changing. It can no longer be assumed that the majority of United States residents grew up in a household where either Judaism or Christianity was the predominant faith.
As a member of a workplace where there is a high percentage of Asian and Asian-American employees who were brought up in households with Buddhist, Confucian, and Shinto traditions, I would liked to have learned more about these different faith and philosophical perspectives. However, what I did learn has proven useful in seeking to understand and empathize with my colleagues' worldviews. It is often said that Buddhism…… [Read More]. Mencius' View That Human Nature. Mencius saw Tian as the source of morality and social sanction if the king was good, Heaven enabled him to rule.
Hsun Tzu, on the other hand, perceived heaven as dispassionate and unresponsive at best to human predicament and existence, He therefore advocated that man should not look to Tian for assistance or attempt to placate or please tian, but rather endeavor to craft his own fate Watson, The intellectual conflict between Mencius and Hsun Tsu reminds one of the differences between an atheist and theist, and, indeed, tian was given associations that are reminiscent of God. It was from this premise that Mencius who perceived Tian to be benevolent affirmed that human nature was intrinsically good, whilst Hsun Tzu who saw Tian as the reverse perceived human nature to be born faulty and replete with greed, strife, and Freudian attributes that if not curbed and socialized would lead…… [Read More].
John Kotter Confucious Machiavelli and. He had an opportunity to utilize his theories when he became head of the Florentine militia and helped overthrow the de Medici family rulers. His byword was "force and prudence," and he believed that demonstrating a combination of these two things is the mark of an effective leader.
Kotter may agree that prudence is a valuable characteristic in a leader, but disagrees with the outdated principle of force, saying that change cannot be forced, it must be incorporated into one's life and future: Change sticks only when it becomes "the way we do things around here," when it seeps into the very bloodstream of the work unit or corporate body. Until new behaviors are rooted in social norms and shared values, they are always subject to degradation as soon as the pressures associated with a change effort are removed Kotter, , Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an influential philosopher, artist and…… [Read More].
It MLA style, Answer questions: Confucius thinks deliberate tradition It is not absolutely necessary for an individual to be cognizant of and take part in some sort of deliberate tradition for the cultivation of virtuous individual lives.
Nonetheless, such a tradition can be useful in propagating virtue. Alternatively, such a tradition can also be used to propagate vices and other nefarious forms of behavior. However, a deliberate tradition is not necessary to cultivate virtue. One can cultivate virtue simply by following the golden rule, which is to do unto others as one wants done unto oneself Klempner.
Such a mantra or formula for virtue is highly innate and is actually little more than common sense. Hence, individuals can discover this ideology on their own and practice it without expressly being told about it, or following some lengthy tradition dispelling other means of moral behavior. In light of this…… [Read More]. How Confucianism Impacted China. Confucianism in Pre-Modern China Confucianism comes from the Chinese philosopher Confucius, after whom the philosophy takes its name. Confucius lived from the middle of the 6th century BC to the first part of the 5th century BC and was a teacher of the values of those who lived in the days of Chinese antiquity.
For Confucius, the greatest years of the Zhou dynasty had come in the three centuries prior to his birth. The dynasty itself lasted for centuries following Confucius' life, though in a much different form from what came before. Confucius viewed the lessons of the early Zhou dynasty as containing valuable nuggets of wisdom. Confucius' teachings carried on well after his day as did many other schools of thought in China, where philosophy and wisdom were highly prized and sought after by many Chinese leaders from Confucius' own time till the end of the 3rd century BC.
Men In the World of. Again, he does not choose his ruler, but he must still obey him. Being born to certain parents and being under the authority of a certain ruler is fate. One cannot fight against it. Building upon the comparisons of these two relationships, Confucius then describes another, the relationship one has with one's mind: '…[S]erve your own mind so that sadness or joy do not sway or move it; to understand what you can do nothing about and to be content with it as with fate this is the perfection of virtue.
As a subject and a son, you are bound to find things you cannot avoid. If you act in accordance with the state of affairs and forget about yourself, then what leisure will you have to love life and hate death? Act in this way, and you will be all right. Japan and Confucianism in Art and Society. When Neo-Confucianism arrived in Japan in the 16th century, it built on the pre-existing ideas of Confucianism that had already been imported into the island centuries earlier Tsutsui As far back as the 5th century, the Japanese had mixed with Confucian ideas about society and the role of the person in the world.
Confucian ideas taught the Japanese about what it means to be a moral person. However, the Japanese also incorporated Buddhist concepts into their culture -- and these focused on the metaphysical side of nature and how to define reality or unreality. These two systems of thought, along with Taoism, molded Japan for hundreds of years. By the time Neo-Confucianism arrived, the Japanese were ready to address the issues that the schools left unresolved. Buddhism presented life as basically unreal and that nirvana was the real reality.
Confucianism taught values about society and how to respect life,…… [Read More]. Good and Evil Aristotle Bases. The superior man is broad and fair; the inferior man takes sides and is petty A superior man shapes the good in man; he does not shape the bad in him. It is said that a disciple once asked Confucius to define the conduct of one's entire life with a single word. The Chinese philosopher replied: "Is not reciprocity such a word? What you do not want done to yourself do not do to others. However, despite the importance of this principle, Confucius does not explain other notions by using this particular idea, as a derivate thereof, nor does he present in greater detail what a man should do in the relationship with others parents, friends , when faced with opposite choices, as a natural consequence of "reciprocity.
Japan Religion. Confucianism the Major Religion of Japan? Religion is a cultural phenomenon and institution that involves specific behaviors and practices. Religion has been present for a great deal of human history.
Confucius in the Analects Essay
Religion is concerned with beliefs. Belief is a powerful tool in a person's life. People live their lives in conjunction with and in support of their beliefs. There are ways to interpret and pinpoint the ways in which religion and beliefs manifest in a culture. This paper will contemplate Japan and religion. The paper will consider what religions are present in Japanese history.
With specific focus on Confucianism, the paper will ask if Confucianism is the major religion of Japan; whether it is or not, the paper will render an understanding as to why. Confucius, an important figure in Chinese history, created Confucianism.
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Confucius was a political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru school of Chinese thought Stanford: Neo-Confucianism Transmission Received Tracing the. Confucius reiterates this when he asks "Is humaneness far away? If I want to be humane, then humaneness is here" Zhu Xi also attributes this duality to every human being, from the wisest to the least intelligent In fact, he takes the intrinsic presence of the mind of the Way even further than Confucius did in his idea of humaneness.
In Confucianism, the capacity for humaneness in everyone does not mean that humaneness is actually present in everyone. But for Zhu Xi, the mind of the Way exists concretely in every human being, and its apparent lack is only an internal imbalance between the human mind and the mind of the Way. This difference sheds light on the centrality of achieving the Mean in Neo-Confucianism -- a centrality that seems to be missing in Confucianism itself.
It could be argued that this distinction qualifies Neo-Confucianism as a separate…… [Read More]. I Ching Is a Form. Fire the hottest element and metal the hardest both are associated with yang. Nevertheless, the Blue Dragon that symbolizes wood is a principal symbol of yang, while the hite Tiger that symbolizes metal is a principal symbol of yin.
This kind of reversal turns up frequently in the I Ching.. There are eight trigrams: The I Ching [Y" Jing1] uses the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams reuse the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams represent states of affairs, and the I Ching is consulted through the construction of a hexagram to answer one's question. The construction is carried out either through a complicated process of throwing and counting yarrow stalks, or by throwing three coins.
The obverse head …… [Read More]. Superior Man Both Confucianism and. From this point-of-view, it could be stated that the reward for his attempt is to be found in this life. The adept of Taoism, in his attempt to become a superior man will dedicate himself, ore to actions which can have a strong social impact. Instead he will focus upon actions such contemplation of himself and the universal energy.
The reward of the Taoist superior man is to be achieved in another life this implies the belief in reincarnation. It must be underlined that despite these differences, the final result includes both the development of the individual and that of society and from this all the other individual benefit as well.
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