- APUSH Essays – All past prompts by topic
- AP US History Practice Test: Period 3 (–) | High School Test Prep
- 5. The American Revolution
What methods did they use to achieve this? Locate three primary sources, British or American, that contain protests or criticisms of the Stamp Act. Discuss attitudes to the Stamp Act within Britain. To what extent was the legislation supported there? Locate three visual sources that contain protests or criticisms of the Stamp Act.
Discuss the content of these sources and explain how they use ideas, symbols and tone to encourage opposition to the Stamp Act. Referring to three specific incidents, explain how American colonists used intimidation or violence to protest against the Stamp Act. Why did these differences become crucial in the unfolding revolution? Explain why the Stamp Act was repealed in and the implications this had for relations between Britain and her American colonies. What commodities were affected by these duties? Which groups or classes became involved in this campaign?
What ideas were contained in the Massachusetts Circular Letter, written by Samuel Adams in early ? What were the consequences of this letter for Anglo-American relations? What was the background to the Boston Massacre? Why did violence erupt between Bostonians and British soldiers in March ? Using primary and secondary evidence, explain who was more responsible for the Boston Massacre: the Boston mob or the British soldiers?
Explain the purpose of the Tea Act of Which Americans were most affected by this act and how did they respond? Was the Boston Tea Party a protest against British taxation, British trade regulations, or something else?
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How did the appointment of General Thomas Gage as governor of Massachusetts contribute to a revolutionary situation there? What were the terms of this act and why did the Americans oppose it? Discuss the content of the Fairfax Resolves and Suffolk Resolves of What impact did these local resolutions have on the broader revolution?
What decisions or resolutions were made by the first Continental Congress in ? How did they shape the course of the revolution? What attempts were made to reconcile the American colonies with Great Britain between mid and July ? Which people or groups favoured reconciliation? Referring to specific people, groups and places, explain how the American colonies mobilised for war between mid and April Discuss the impact of this document. Describe the push for independence within the second Continental Congress.
Which groups and people lobbied for a break with Britain? In its first months, the Continental Army was notorious for its lack of military organisation and poor discipline. How did George Washington and others turn the Continental Army into an effective military force? How did American leaders convince ordinary people to enlist in the Continental Army or state militias and fight in the Revolutionary War? Referring to primary and secondary sources, explain the challenges and problems faced by an ordinary foot soldier in the Continental Army.
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What occurred at Trenton, New Jersey in late December ? Why is this seemingly minor event considered a turning point in the Revolutionary War? Referring to at least two other nations, explain how the American revolutionaries sought the support of foreign nations during the Revolutionary War. How successful were the Continental Congress and state governments at supplying the war effort? What obstacles and difficulties did they face? Why were British commanders unable to carry out and fulfil these objectives?
Investigate attitudes to the American Revolutionary War back in Britain. Did these attitudes change over time and did they have an effect on government policy?
APUSH Essays – All past prompts by topic
Describe the national government created by the Articles of Confederation in What were the advantages and disadvantages of this form of government? Why did the new United States find itself in an economic depression during the s? Consider both internal and external factors.
How did the new United States government address the challenge of its newly acquired territories west of the Appalachians? Outline the causes of unrest among Massachusetts farmers in What were their grievances and what action did they take to resolve them? Explain and discuss at least three compromises that were reached during the drafting of the United States Constitution in How was the issue of slavery addressed — or not addressed — in the United States Constitution? Identify differences between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in How did their visions for the new United States differ?
How did the Federalist movement contribute to the successful ratification of the Constitution in ? Why was it considered necessary to incorporate these rights into the Constitution? To what extent was the American Revolution complete by ? John Adams famously described Americans as being one third in favour of the revolution, one third against it and one-third indifferent.
How accurate is this claim? Many Revolutionary War clergy argued that the war against Britain was approved by God. In this sermon Abraham Keteltas celebrated the American effort as "the cause of truth, against error and falsehood. Abraham Keteltas. This satire expresses the British view that the American Revolution was inspired by the same kind of religious fanaticism that had fueled Oliver Cromwell's establishment of the Commonwealth of England more than a century earlier.
British Museum, London, England Peter Muhlenberg was the prime example of a "fighting parson" during the Revolutionary War. The eldest son of the Lutheran patriarch Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg, young Muhlenberg at the conclusion of a sermon in January to his congregation in Woodstock, Virginia, threw off his clerical robes to reveal the uniform of a Virginia militia officer. Having served with distinction throughout the war, Muhlenberg commanded a brigade that successfully stormed the British lines at Yorktown.
He retired from the army in as a brevetted major general. John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg. Oil on canvas, by an unidentified American artist. Nineteenth century. James Caldwell , a Presbyterian minister at Elizabeth, New Jersey, was one of the many clergymen who served as chaplains during the Revolutionary War.
AP US History Practice Test: Period 3 (–) | High School Test Prep
At the battle of Springfield, New Jersey, on June 23, , when his company ran out of wadding, Caldwell was said to have dashed into a nearby Presbyterian Church, scooped up as many Watts hymnals as he could carry, and distributed them to the troops, shouting "put Watts into them, boys.
Reverend James Caldwell at the Battle of Springfield. Watercolor by Henry Alexander Ogden. Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia Gostelowe Standard No. Watercolor once in possession of Edward W.
John Witherspoon was the most important "political parson" of the Revolutionary period. He represented New Jersey in the Continental Congress from to , in which capacity he signed the Declaration of Independence and served on more than one hundred committees. As president of Princeton, Witherspoon was accused of turning the institution into a "seminary of sedition. John Witherspoon. National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.
Some Quakers were conscientiously convinced that they could, despite the Friends' peace testimony, take up arms against the British. Calling themselves "Free Quakers," they organized in Philadelphia.
The majority of Quakers adhered to the denomination's traditional position of pacifism and disowned their belligerent brethren. This Free Quaker broadside declares that although the "regular" Quakers have "separated yourselves from us, and declared that you have no unity with us," the schism does not compromise the Free Quakers' rights to common property.
To those of our Brethren who have disowned us. Broadside, July 9, Manuscript Division , Library of Congress The American Revolution inflicted deeper wounds on the Church of England in America than on any other denomination because the King of England was the head of the church. Anglican priests, at their ordination, swore allegiance to the King. The Book of Common Prayer offered prayers for the monarch, beseeching God "to be his defender and keeper, giving him victory over all his enemies," who in were American soldiers as well as friends and neighbors of American Anglicans.
5. The American Revolution
Loyalty to the church and to its head could be construed as treason to the American cause. Patriotic American Anglicans, loathe to discard so fundamental a component of their faith as The Book of Common Prayer , revised it to conform to the political realities. Mary's County, Maryland, placed over the offending passages strips of paper showing prayers composed for the Continental Congress. The petition that God "keep and strengthen in the true worshipping of thee, in righteousness and holiness of life, thy servant GEORGE, our most gracious King and Governour" was changed to a plea that "it might please thee to bless the honorable Congress with Wisdom to discern and Integrity to pursue the true Interest of the United States.
Book of Common Prayer. England: John Baskerville, c. The problem was handled differently by Christ Church, Philadelphia. London: Mark Basket, Right page. Oxford: Printed by Mark Basket, printer to the University, More than half of the Anglican priests in America, unable to reconcile their oaths of allegiance to George III with the independence of the United States, relinquished their pulpits during the Revolutionary War.
Some of the more intrepid priests put their loyalty to the Crown at the service of British forces in America. One of these, Jonathan Odell , rector at Burlington, New Jersey, became a confidant of Benedict Arnold and scourged the Patriots with a sharp, satirical pen. This long, rhymed attack on John Witherspoon contains the clumsy couplet, "Whilst to myself I've humm'd in dismal tune, I'd rather be a dog than Witherspoon. Jonathan Odell, London: In the years following American independence, Anglican ministers who had remained in the colonies began planning for an independent American church.
One of the publications that focused discussion on the issue was this volume by William White. A series of conferences in the s failed to bridge the differences between two parties that emerged but, at a convention in , the two groups formed the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States.
A church government and revised Book of Common Prayer believed to be compatible with a rising democratic nation were adopted. William White. Philadelphia: David Claypoole, The independence of the United States stimulated American Methodists, as it did their brethren in the Church of England, with whom the Methodists had considered themselves "in communion," to organize themselves as an independent, American church. Asbury was ordained as deacon, elder, and superintendent. American Methodists adopted the title of bishop for their leaders three years later. Engraving by A. Gilchrist Campbell, , after a painting by Thomas Coke Ruckle.